Parkinson disease, also know as PD, Paralysis agintans or shaking palsy, is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the nervous central system and neurons in the part of the brain responsible for body movements.

Parkinson’s is part of a group of conditions generically called movement disorders and has as main symptoms hand tremor, muscle rigidity and, in extreme cases, a slowing and even loss of physical movements. As well as motor symptoms PD also has non-motor symptoms like dysfunction, sensory and sleep difficulties and cognitive problems.

The diagnosis in Parkinson’s, like in any other movement disorder is based on 2 evaluations: the neurological examination and diagnosis tests.

In order to evaluate a patient with PD, during the neurological exams, the doctor considers the medical history and performs a physical examination. The doctor requests the symptoms, ask him/her to walk around, turn around, sit down, stand up and so on. These actions can determine all aspects of movement, balance and coordination.

Unfortunately the diagnosis tests are not very relevant, but rarely blood tests can show abnormalities on patients with Parkinson’s. MRI, Cat scans and EEGs are not of help. Imagistic speaking the brain of a Parkinson’s patient looks as healthy a normal person’s brain. And that is because in neurodegenerative diseases the changes are microscopic and at a chemical level.

The treatment for Parkinson is based only on prescription pills and does not cure it, only assures the patient a closer to normal life. The cure consists of three type for therapies:

-         Symptomatic therapy which improves the signs and symptoms of the disease;

-         Neuron protective therapy that slows neuronal degeneration and delays disease’s progression;

-         Restorative therapy that helps replace the neuron that had been lost. One way to do that is by the transplantation of embryonic tissue.

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