The thyroid gland is an organ located in the front of the neck, over the trachea and has a butterfly shape. Its main role is that of producing hormones that include iodine and regulate the rate at which the cells use energy and produce heat. All body’s tissue development depends on the thyroid’s accurate function. If it is underactive or overactive it may create major health issues.

Hypothyroidism is the condition when the gland is producing a smaller the normal secretion of the hormone. The normal symptoms for Hypothyroidism are coldness, dry skin, very little hair growth and a general symptom of slowing down. In more severe cases there is the thickening of the skin, condition called myxedema. The most frequent causes for hypothyroidism are: autoimmune thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis, acute thyroiditis and silent thyroiditis.

There have been cases where children were born without the thyroid gland. It is very important that the child is diagnosed fast because the lack of treatment may cause both physical and psychological problems.

Hypothyroidism is easily treated by replacing the normal quantity of the chemical the body need.

Hyperthyroidism is present when the gland is overactive and an increase of the body’s metabolism will appear. The symptoms for Hyperthyroidism are weight loss even though the appetite increases excessive sweating, hand tremor and pounding heart.  The most frequent causes for hyperthyroidism are: Graver’s disease, toxic multimodal goiter and excessive intake of iodine.

The overactive thyroid can be slowed down with proper medication, but the improvement is only temporary and in severe cases the doctor can decide for the removal of the thyroid gland.

The diagnosis of the thyroid disorder consists of the following steps:

-          The doctor will require the history of symptoms

-          The doctor will examine the thyroid for any signs of irregularity or size modification

-          Blood tests will determine the levels of hormones secreted by the gland

-          Thyroid scanning with the help of radioactive iodine intake.

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